What is Dementia?

What is Dementia?

Dementia is not a specific disease. It is a descriptive term for a collection of symptoms that can be caused by a number of disorders that affect the brain. People with dementia have significantly impaired intellectual functioning that interferes with normal activities and relationships. These individuals also lose their ability to solve problems and maintain emotional control, and they may experience personality changes and behavioral problems, such as agitation, delusions, and hallucinations. While memory loss is a common symptom of dementia, memory loss by itself does not mean that a person has dementia. Doctors diagnose dementia only if two or more brain functions, such as memory and language skills, are significantly impaired without loss of consciousness. Some of the diseases that can cause symptoms of dementia are Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, Lewy-body dementia, frontal-temporal dementia, Huntington’s disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Doctors have identified other conditions that can cause dementia or symptoms including reactions to medications, metabolic problems and endocrine abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, infections, poisoning, brain tumors, anoxia or hypoxia (conditions in which the brain’s oxygen supply is either reduced or cut off entirely), and heart and lung problems.  Although it is common in very elderly individuals, dementia is not a normal part of the aging process.

Is There Treatment?

Drugs to specifically treat Alzheimer’s disease and other progressive dementias are available. Although these medications do not halt the disease or reverse existing brain damage, they can improve symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. This may improve the individual’s quality of life, ease the burden on caregivers, or delay admission to a nursing home. Researchers are also examining whether these drugs may be useful for treating other types of dementia. People with dementia, particularly individuals in the early stages, may benefit from practicing tasks designed to improve performance in specific aspects of cognitive functioning. For example, people can sometimes be taught to use memory aids, such as mnemonics and computerized recall devices.

What is the Prognosis?

There are many disorders that can cause dementia. Some, such as Alzheimer’s disease or Huntington’s disease, lead to a progressive loss of mental functions, but other types of dementia can be halted or reversed with appropriate treatment. People with moderate or advanced dementia typically need 24-hour care and supervision to prevent them from harming themselves or others. These individuals also may need assistance with daily activities such as eating, bathing, and dressing.

What Research is Being Done?

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and other institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to dementia in laboratories at the NIH and also support additional dementia research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. Current research focuses on many different aspects of dementia. This research promises to improve the lives of individuals affected by the dementias and may eventually lead to ways of preventing or curing these disorders.


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